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Understanding Typhoid fever: Everything you need to know

By Dr. Rajinder Kumar Singal in Internal Medicine

Nov 27 , 2023 | 2 min read

Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection caused by Salmonella Typhi. It is a significant threat to public health, particularly in areas with poor sanitation and limited access to clean water.


What are the symptoms of typhoid fever?


What are the causes of typhoid fever?

Salmonella Typhi bacteria is responsible for typhoid fever. It primarily spreads through contaminated food and water, making it more prevalent in areas with inadequate sanitation. Factors contributing to its spread include poor hygiene practices, overcrowding, and inadequate sewage disposal.

What are the stages of typhoid?

Typhoid fever typically progresses through four stages:

Stage I: Early symptoms of Typhoid, including fever, headache, and abdominal pain.

Stage II: Increased fever, gastrointestinal symptoms, and the potential development of complications.

Stage III: Severe complications may arise, affecting various organs.

Stage IV: Recovery or, in severe cases, further complications leading to hospitalisation.

Diagnosis of typhoid fever

Diagnosing typhoid fever usually involves blood tests and stool cultures to detect the presence of Salmonella Typhi. Early diagnosis is crucial for effective treatment.

How is typhoid fever treated?

Antibiotic therapy is the primary treatment for typhoid fever. Completing the prescribed antibiotic course is essential to prevent antibiotic resistance and ensure a full recovery. Hospitalisation may be necessary for severe cases.

What are the risk factors of Typhoid fever?

Poor sanitation and limited access to clean drinking water are significant environmental factors facilitating the transmission of the Salmonella Typhi bacterium. Additionally, travel to or residence in regions with high typhoid incidence, consuming contaminated food or water, and inadequate vaccination coverage can elevate the risk of contracting the disease. Addressing these risk factors is crucial in minimising the spread and impact of the disease.

How is typhoid fever prevented?

Preventing typhoid fever involves a multi-faceted approach:

  • Be Careful Of What You Eat And Drink: Consuming only safe and well-cooked food and drinking clean, treated water is essential to prevent infection.

  • Highlight The Importance Of Hygiene Practices: Promoting proper handwashing, sanitation, and safe waste disposal can minimise the risk of contamination.

  • Recommendations For Travellers To Endemic Areas: Travelers should be cautious when visiting regions with high typhoid prevalence, considering vaccination and adhering to safe food and water practices.

  • Typhoid Vaccines: Vaccination is an effective preventive measure, with both oral and injectable vaccines available.


Frequently Asked Questions

1. Can typhoid Fever be treated at home?

Mild cases can sometimes be managed at home, but severe cases require hospitalisation.

2. How many days rest after typhoid?

The duration of rest required varies from person to person but may extend for a few weeks.

3. What food should be avoided in typhoid?

Avoid raw or undercooked foods, and opt for well-cooked, hygienic meals.

4. Can blood tests detect typhoid?

Yes, blood tests and stool cultures are used for typhoid diagnosis.

5. How does typhoid fever impact pregnant women?

Typhoid can pose risks to both the mother and the fetus.

6. How does typhoid impact global health?

Typhoid fever remains a global health concern, particularly in low-resource settings, and efforts to control its spread are ongoing.