Pituitary Tumor The pituitary gland, occasionally known as the “primary” gland, is a pea-sized gland that plays an essential role in the functioning of the human body. It’s beneath the front of the brain and behind the eyes.
Pituitary tumors are abnormal growths in the pituitary gland that develop over time. A pituitary tumor is an abnormal development in the pituitary gland. The majority of these tumors aren’t cancerous, and they are called adenomas.
Outside of the pituitary gland, they seldom spread. However, it affects the person’s health significantly. They can spread to adjacent nerves, blood arteries, and brain tissue. They may adequately secrete some chemicals and cause an imbalance of hormones.
Some pituitary tumors cause an excess of hormones that control vital physiological functions. The pituitary gland may generate fewer hormones because of some pituitary tumors.
Pituitary tumors are uncommon, and they are typically noncancerous or benign. The majority of them are also functioning, which means they generate hormones, and Nonfunctioning tumors don’t secrete hormones.
Pituitary Tumor Epidemiology
Pituitary adenomas are growing in incidence 8 cases per 100,000 per year and show a prevalence of about 80 to 120 instances per 100,000 people in the general population. Epidemiologic research suggests approximately 1 case per 1000 of the general population.
Pituitary Tumor Pathophysiology
Pituitary tumors are abnormal cellular proliferation and the imbalance of hormone hypersecretion. The pituitary gland undergoes reversible morphological and functional changes in response to various central and peripheral infusions.
Types of Pituitary Tumor
The two categories of pituitary tumors are:
Certain types of pituitary tumors include
- ACTH-secreting tumors
- TSH-secreting tumors
- GH-secreting tumors
- Nonfunctional adenomas (null cell adenomas)
- Prolactin-secreting tumors/ prolactin-producing adenomas
Causes of Pituitary Tumor
- DNA alterations that turn on oncogenes or turn off tumor-suppressor genes can induce tumors. Some people inherit some DNA mutations (changes) from their parents that considerably increase their chance of developing pituitary tumors.
- Stress is also another condition that develops pituitary cancer.
Risk Factors of Pituitary Tumor
Any condition that increases the chances of acquiring a disease arises as a risk factor. Pituitary tumors can be part of a genetic syndrome that involves a higher chance of developing other forms of malignancies.
- Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type I
- McCune-Albright syndrome
- Carney complex
Signs or Symptoms of Pituitary Tumor
The following are the symptoms of pituitary tumors:
- Weak muscles and bones
- Irregular heartbeats
- Weight gain
- Vision loss
- Irregularity in menstrual cycles
- Low sex drive
- Nasal stuffiness
- Loss of body hair
- Confusion I
- High blood pressure
Diagnosis and Typical Tests of Pituitary Tumor
Several types of tests that are performed for the complete diagnosis of pituitary tumors, including:
- Blood and urine tests: This specifically identifies the hormonal deficiency or hormonal imbalances.
- Imaging tests: To find the macro or microadenoma in the brain’s pituitary gland, doctors suggest taking a computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging.
- Vision tests: It is advisable to perform peripheral vision tests by the physician.
Possible Treatment of Pituitary Tumor
Some of the possible treatments for pituitary tumors are as follows:
- Surgical removal of the pituitary tumor (Nasal surgery and Transcranial surgery)
- Radiation therapy
- Hormone dysfunction medications
Expected Prognosis of Pituitary Tumor
The expected prognosis of the pituitary tumor indicates about 95% to 97% of survival rate over five years. Nearly 12% of the patients seek further diagnosis and treatments for pituitary adenomas.
Possible Complications of Pituitary Tumor
Some of the possible complications of pituitary tumor are listed below:
- Vision loss/ visual defects
- Diabetes insipidus
- Sinus infection
- Leakage of cerebrospinal fluid
- Hormone imbalance/ deficiencies
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