Lipoma

Name of the disease - A lipoma is a benign (noncancerous) tumour that forms slowly under the skin and is made of fat tissue. The back, torso, arms, shoulders, and neck are the most typically affected areas. It is the most common tumor in human body.

Associated Anatomy -

This illness is mostly linked to the skin (just beneath the skin, to be precise) but it can occur anywhere in body.

Lipoma Causes -

  • Although the actual cause of lipoma is unknown, some cases is thought to be genetic. People who have a family history of lipomas are substantially more likely to develop them.
  • Inherited conditions like Madelung's disease, Cowden syndrome, Adiposis dolorosa, and Gardner's syndrome can increase the likelihood of developing lipomas.

Signs or Symptoms of Lipoma –

  • A soft lump of rubbery tissue with a diameter of 2–10 cm
  • It's normally encapsulated or in the shape of an egg, and it doesn't spread to the tissues around it.
  • It's movable — it can be moved under the skin with your fingers.
  • Painless - Lipomas are normally painless, but if they rub on surrounding nerves, they might cause discomfort.
  • Colourless and slow-growing

Possible Treatment of Lipoma –

- If a lipoma becomes large or causes discomfort or other issues, it can be removed using one of two procedures:

  • Surgery - Lipoma is surgically removed. After an injection to numb the area, a tiny cut is made to remove the lipoma. If it is a small lipoma large lipoma are removed under general anasthesia.
  • Liposuction to remove fat - Using a specific equipment, a fatty tumour is evacuated through small incisions. There is a chance that the lipoma will reappear after this operation.

Risk Factor of Lipoma –

Several variables can raise the risk of lipoma, including:

  • Age - People in their forties and fifties (40-60 years) are more likely to have this ailment.
  • Genetics - A person with one or more lipomas in their family is more likely to get one.
  • Other diseases - Having several other medical conditions, such as Gardner syndrome, obesity, liver disease, excessive cholesterol, and so on.

Stages-

Different types/stages of lipomas include:

  • Conventional lipoma, which has white fat cells and is the most frequent type of lipoma.
  • Hibernoma lipoma contains brown fat, which aids in body temperature regulation.
  • Fibrolipoma is a fat-and-fibrous-tissue tumour.
  • Angiolipoma is made of fat and blood vessels and causes pain.
  • Myelolipoma is a fat-and-tissue tumour that produces blood cells.
  • Spindle cells are fat cells that are rod-shaped.

Typical Test –

Your doctor may do specialised tests to detect a lipoma, such as a physical examination that includes inspecting and feeling the lump. An ultrasound and other imaging tests, such as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan or a computed tomography (CT) scan, can be used to get a clear view of lipomas. A biopsy may be required to determine if the lipoma is cancerous or non-cancerous by removing a small piece of the lipoma and testing the tissue for cancerous cells.

Primary Prevention -

Lipomas frequently run in families, suggesting that heredity may play a role. Lipomas cannot be prevented because they are inherited. It can, however, be treated or prevented by reducing the likelihood of developing specific medical disorders including Madelung's disease (by avoiding alcohol use), obesity, liver illness, excessive cholesterol, and so on.

Secondary Prevention -

  • Get enough rest and avoid putting too much stress and strain on your body. Otherwise, the healing process may be hampered.
  • Eat a well-balanced, healthy diet to ensure enough nutritional levels for the regeneration of damaged tissues.
  • Carefully follow the surgeon's preventive advice and medication guidelines. For 2-3 days, OTC pain relievers such as ibuprofen can help.
  • Check-ins with the surgeon on a regular basis to ensure that you are healing properly.

Epidemiology –

  • Lipomas are prevalent, affecting about one out of every 100 persons (1 percent ).
  • It can emerge at any age, but it is most common between the ages of 40 and 60.
  • People with a history of multiple lipomatosis in their family are more prone to acquire multiple lipomas. It is, however, more usual to develop only one or two.

Expected Prognosis –

There is no risk of malignant transformation in benign lipomas. Lipomas rarely grow again after they've been removed. However, another lipoma could form in a different part of your body.

Natural Progression –

Lipomas are usually harmless and do not interfere with your regular activities. Unless the lipoma is painful, developing or bothering you, there is usually no need for therapy. If you experience these symptoms, your doctor may prescribe surgical removal.

Pathophysiology –

Lipomas have an enigmatic aetiology. Benign lipomas can appear anywhere on the body. A potential for developing lipoma occurs after damage to the affected area, resulting in adipose/fat cell necrosis and subsequent local inflammation. The anatomy is determined by the location of the tumour. Subcutaneous lipomas aren't generally attached to the fascia beneath the skin. To prevent the fibrous capsule from growing back, it must be removed.

Possible Complication –

Lipomas do not pose a serious threat to one's health. However, it can expand and become uncomfortable at times. In such cases, the doctor may advise surgical removal of the fatty tissue. Lipomas can induce luminal blockage, bleeding, calcification, and infection in rare cases.

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