Since it’s a crucial treatment process, a patient has to undergo various processes before the autologous bone marrow transplant to ensure high safety and better outcomes.
Step 1: Pre-Transplant Process: A doctor might prescribe Pre-transplant tests and procedures, where a series of tests and procedures are performed to ensure the patient’s general health and the status of the medical condition. This process of evaluation may take several days.
- Beginning Medical Evaluation- The patient undergoes various tests to check the overall health..
- Central Venous Catheter Evaluation And Insertion- A catheter (thin tube) is inserted into the neck or chest. The catheter acts as a pipeline through which medications and stem cells are infused.
- Apheresis/Bone-Marrow/Stem Cells Harvest- The patient will receive injections to boost stem cell production and circulate them in blood so that they can be collected.
Step 2: Conditioning Process: After completing the medical evaluation, a patient has to undergo the conditioning process. In this process, either chemotherapy or radiation therapy or a combination of both is given to the patient to:
- Destroy any type of cancer cells in case of malignancy
- Preparing the patient's bone marrow for the growth of new stem cells.
Step 3: Autologous Bone Marrow Transplant: A patient now has to go through cytotoxic treatment, which involves the transplantation of the harvested and processed cells back into the patient's body through a central venous catheter. These cells then travel through the bloodstream into the places inside the bones, where they tend to create new bone marrow.
Step 4: Engraftment: In this process, the patient is under close monitoring for the sign of the growth of new stem cells along with supportive care.
After the autologous bone transplant process, the patient will stay in the hospital or visit the hospital. At every follow-up, patients are monitored for side effects, weakness and other symptomatic treatment. Blood counts may fluctuate in the initial 3-4 weeks after autologous BMT.