Allogeneic transplantation is a process that offers great chances of curing the disease related to blood and bone marrow cancers and other disorders. To ensure high safety and better outcomes, some preparation is made by the doctor before the surgery, which a patient must follow.
Step 1: Pre-Transplant Process: A patient has to take a series of Pre-transplant tests and procedures to ensure their general health and the status of their current medical condition. This process of evaluation may take several days.
Beginning Medical Evaluation- The patient undergoes various tests to check the overall health of the individual.
Central Venous Catheter Evaluation And Insertion- A catheter (thin tube) is inserted into the neck or chest. The catheter acts as a pipeline through which medications and stem cells are infused.
Bone-Marrow/Stem Cells Harvest
Step 2: Conditioning Process: After the completion of the medical evaluation, a patient has to undergo the conditioning process. In this process, either chemotherapy or radiation therapy or a combination of both is given to the patient to:
Destroy any type of cancer cells in case of malignancy
Preparing the patient’s bone marrow for the growth of new stem cells.
Suppressing the patient's immune system
Step 3: Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant: The patient undergoes cytotoxic treatment where the harvested and processed bone marrow/Stem cells are transplanted into the patient using a central venous catheter. The liquid bone marrow/stem cells travel through the bloodstream of the patient into the different places inside the bones. The transplant offers a patient’s body a tendency to create new blood cells in a process known as engraftment.
Step 4: Engraftment: In this process, the patient is under close monitoring for the sign of the growth of new stem cells along with supportive care.
Step 5: Post Engraftment Monitoring And Continuation Of Immunosuppression
After an allogeneic stem cell transplant, the patient will stay in the hospital or visit the hospital every day for a couple of weeks. Initially, the count of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets will be less, so antibiotics will be prescribed to prevent infection. But gradually, within 2 to 6 weeks, the number of blood cells increases to normal levels.