Leukemias are a kind of blood cancer malignancies that begin in cells that typically grow into various blood cell types. When healthy blood cells alter and multiply out of control, leukemia develops. Thus the formation of immature cells is known as acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL).
In acute lymphocytic leukemia, "lymphocytic" refers to the white blood cells known as lymphocytes that play a role in the immune system. B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (B-ALL) is children's most frequent malignancy, and leukemia, with 70%, is treatable.
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a blood and bone marrow malignancy that affects the spongy tissue inside bones. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, also otherwise known as acute lymphocytic leukemia, is a kind of leukemia that affects the blood cells.
The term acute lymphocytic leukemia indicates immature white blood cells proliferate, and the onset of infection occurs instantaneously. In children, there is an average survival rate in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) at 60 to 80% by acquired genetic aberrations. ALL is more common among Hispanics and Latin Americans than in Africans worldwide.
Associated Anatomy of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
The associated anatomy of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia include:
Types of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Some of the subtypes of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia are:
B-Cell ALL (Precursor B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia):
These B-Cell ALL are the most common type in children with the aggressive growth of immature B-lymphoblastic cells.
T-Cell ALL (Precursor T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia)
The immature T-lymphoblastic cells are susceptible to treatment at the early onset of infection and are most common among adults.
Mixed Lineage Acute Leukemias
This type of leukemia rarely causes the site of infection among children and adulthood, where other types of leukemia develop simultaneously. The results of any imaging studies reveal both ALL and AML, with the possibility of MLA.
Causes of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
- The primary cause for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia is exposure to high doses of radiation and certain other chemicals.
- Mutations involved in oncogenes controlling on and off tumor suppressor genes can cause cancers (including ALL and AML).
- A DNA mutation in the stem cells causes excessive white blood cells, inducing acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
- Having a history of leukemia patients in the family might be heritable to their offspring.
Signs and Symptoms of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
The following are some of the signs and symptoms of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia:
- High fever
- Shortness of breath.
- Bleeding gums.
- Pale skin.
- Severe nosebleeds
- Joint pain
- Swollen lymph nodes
- Bone ache.
- Dark-red spots
- Persistent fatigue
- Poor appetite
- Enlarged spleen
Possible Treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
The following are the possible treatments for acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia include:
- Targeted Drug therapy
- Surgery Radiation therapy
- Stem Cell Transplant
Risk Factors for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Some of the risk factors of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia include:
- Genetic syndrome (Bloom syndrome and Down syndrome)
- Blood Disorders
- Genetic syndromes
- Previous cancer treatment
- Radiation exposure
- Viral infections
- Exposure to harmful chemicals
Diagnosis and Typical Test of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
The following is the list of diagnoses and typical tests of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
- Blood tests: Complete blood count (CBC), peripheral blood smear, Blood chemistry tests, and Coagulation tests
- Bone marrow tests: Bone marrow aspiration and bone marrow biopsy
- Lab tests used to diagnose and classify ALL: Routine examination with a microscope, Cytochemistry, Flow cytometry, Immunophenotyping, and immunohistochemistry.
- Genetics test/Chromosome tests: Cytogenetics, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)
- Tissue typing or HLA typing (Human Leukocyte Antigen)
- Lumbar puncture (spinal tap)
- Lymph node biopsy
- Imaging tests: X-rays, Computed tomography (CT) scan, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, and Ultrasound
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Prevention
A primary preventative approach for acute lymphoblastic leukemia or other lymphoid illnesses has yet to be proven. Therefore, the total blood count is analyzed regularly for monitoring purposes of subjects.
Alternate Name for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Epidemiology
The studies show that the chance of acquiring ALL in one's lifetime is roughly 1 in 1,000. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia may affect anybody of any age, although most instances affect youngsters, specifically children under five. It accounts for about 75 - 80% of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in this age group. Males have a little higher risk of having the ALL than females, while Whites have a slightly higher risk than African Americans.
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Expected Prognosis
- The expected prognosis of the ALL is that around 97% of ALL patients relapse within weeks of commencing therapies, and 85% of the adult patients are curable entirely within ten years of remission. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia is most common in children, whereas Adult survival rates are lower, but they're improving. Thus the ALL has a 5-year relative survival rate of 68%.
- Some of the prognostic factors of ALL include age, Initial white blood cell (WBC) count, Gene or chromosomal abnormalities, Response to chemotherapy, and Status of ALL during and after treatment (Remission)
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Natural Progression
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemias are the type of cancer in which leukocytes multiply rapidly in the blood but are extremely rare. If untreated, this type of leukemia may have fewer symptoms and spread over months to years, but the progression rate is higher as the days pass.
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Pathophysiology
Leukemia is a malignancy that affects the blood and bone marrow and overproduction of abnormal white blood cells. Multiple genetic alterations are involved in the underlying process, which results in rapid cell division. Thus the formation of new red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets is altered by an overabundance of immature lymphocytes in the bone marrow. A sequence of acquired genetic abnormalities results in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Therefore, blood tests and bone marrow tests to interpret for further diagnosis.
Possible Complication of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Some of the possible complications of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia involves:
- Hair Loss
- Bleeding Infections
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