Skin Cancer Skin cancer occurs due to abnormal cell growth. It usually develops in sun-exposed areas but also grows in shaded areas. Women can get skin cancer on their chest, neck, ears, lips, scalp, face, arms, and hands.
Skin Cancer Epidemiology
Ultraviolet (UV) light exposure
A majority of skin cancers occur due to sun exposure. Other UV sources include tanning beds.
Having light-colored skin
Skin cancer affects everyone; however, persons with light skin are more susceptible than those with darker skin. It is because the skin pigment melanin protects darker skin. Therefore, those with blue or green eyes, light skin, and red or blonde hair are at risk.
Skin cancer risk rises with age. It is presumably due to cumulative sun exposure. Because of increased sun exposure, younger people are getting these cancers.
Skin cancers like basal and squamous cells are common in males attributed to higher sun exposure.
Exposure to certain chemicals
Exposure to high levels of arsenic raises the risk of skin cancer. In addition, some areas have arsenic in their well water used in pesticides and other industries.
Radiation patients are more likely to develop skin cancer in the treated area. Therefore, it is a worry for children who have received cancer radiation therapy.
Having basal or squamous cell cancer raises the likelihood of developing it again.
Severe skin inflammation
Skin cancer is more prone to occur in regions of skin scarred by severe burns, skin over significant bone infections, and skin injured by severe inflammatory skin diseases.
Natural Progression of Skin Cancer
Skin cancer may develop when the damaged cells make up your skin resulting in abnormal cell growth. Each extra decade of excessive UV exposure raises your chance of developing skin cancer. Increased sun protection will aid in preventing skin cancer and melanoma in people of all ages.
Causes & Risk factor of Skin Cancer
- Caused by too much sun exposure, especially sunburn and blistering.
- Sunlight damages DNA in your skin, causing abnormal cells to develop.
- These aberrant cells multiply fast, generating a mass of cancer cells.
- Frequent skin contact with chemicals like tar and coal may also cause skin cancer.
- A skin cancer history
- A lighter skin tone.
- Sun-sensitive skin that burns, freckles, reddens, or burns.
Skin Cancer Pathophysiology
Errors (mutations) in the DNA of skin cells are the primary cause of skin cancer. Tumors occur when cells with genetic mutations grow out of control.
Signs & Symptoms of Skin Cancer
- Itching, bleeding, non-healing lesions
- Odd pink spot, patch, or mole.
- New moles.
- Moles that have changed significantly
- Skin cancer may cause enlarged lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are lymphatic tissue groupings where immune cells flow through and reside. Neck, groin, and underarm lymph nodes are commonly affected.
Stages of Skin Cancer
The TNM method describes Merkel cell cancer stages. Test and scan results help doctors answer questions such as:
How big is the primary tumor? Where is it?
Is the tumor in the lymph nodes? Where and how many?
Has the cancer spread? If so, how much and where? Doctors combined the results to establish each person's Merkel cell stage.
Skin Cancer Diagnosis
- Biopsy: As a general rule, your doctor will surgically remove the entire tumor. First, your doctor will numb the area. It is common to treat skin cancer using excisional biopsy, which involves removing the complete tumor.
- Imaging tests: Normal basal cell carcinoma remains local and does not spread to other organs. Several medical imaging technologies can detect cancer cells inside organs and bones. It comprises a CT scan, X-ray, and MRI.
Treatment / Options for Skin Cancer
In some instances, your doctor may use liquid nitrogen to remove actinic keratoses and early skin malignancies (cryosurgery). It thaws dead tissue.
This therapy is suitable for all skin cancers. First, the doctor excises cancerous tissue and healthy skin borders. Then, if the tumor is large enough, perform a wide excision.
Treats Squamous cell carcinomas with this method to save skin.
Curettage and electrodesiccation or cryotherapy
After removing the tumour, your doctor uses a circular blade to scrape away cancer cells. Next, an electric needle kills cancer cells. Finally, liquid nitrogen freezes the treated area's base and edges in an alternative method.
Doctors use radiation treatment to eliminate cancer cells. However, radiation treatment may be an alternative if surgery cannot entirely remove cancer.
Chemotherapy kills cancer cells. For skin cancers, apply anti-cancer creams or lotions directly to the skin. It cures skin cancers that have started to spread.
This treatment eliminates skin cancer cells by combining laser light and drugs that make cancer cells light-sensitive.
Medical professionals employ biological therapy to combat cancer.
Primary Prevention of Skin Cancer
- Seek shade between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m
- Avoid sunburn.
- Avoid tanning and UV tanning beds.
- Wear a broad hat and UV-blocking sunglasses.
- Wear daily broad-spectrum (UVA/UVB) sunscreen with SPF 15 or higher.
- Extensive outdoor exercise requires a water-resistant sunscreen with SPF 30 or higher.
- Apply sunscreen before going outside. It's best to reapply every two hours or after a swim Search our Recommended Products for sunscreen.
- Apply sunscreen to infants over six months.
- Every month, check your whole body.
- Every year, see a dermatologist.
Secondary Prevention of Skin Cancer
- Skin screenings may detect melanoma early when cancer is most treatable.
- Sunscreen usage may reduce the risk of skin cancer, particularly melanoma.
- Visits to the dermatologist
- These tests help identify and treat melanoma early.
Expected Prognosis of Skin Cancer
A five-year survival rate is normal for cancer patients. 80% of those diagnosed with cancer will survive for at least five years. 70% will survive their cancer for five years or longer following diagnosis.
Possible Complication of Skin Cancer
Skin cancer complications include:
- Recurrence of cancer in nodes and other sites.
- Local recurrence of cancer cells in nearby areas
- Muscles, nerves, or other organs may become affected by.
Our BLK-Max Medical Experts
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