What is Meant by High-Risk Pregnancy?
High-risk pregnancy refers to a pregnancy type involving higher health risks for a pregnant woman, her fetus, or both. This demands extra care and protection for the would-be mother before, during, and after giving childbirth. This will perhaps inhibit the possibility of complications ensuring the best possible outcome for both mother and baby.
Women under the age of 17 or more than 35 years have a higher risk of being affected by this condition. The risk factors may arise from pre-existing maternal health conditions like cancer, diabetes, or lupus. However, events occurring during the pregnancy duration might also head toward a high-risk status. While a high-risk pregnancy may indicate an increased likelihood of complications for the mother or the fetus, it doesn't necessarily mean that problems will occur.
Pregnancy Problems: How Common are High-Risk Pregnancies?
It's important to note that the percentage of women experiencing complications in a high-risk pregnancy can vary depending on the specific risk factors present. While some high-risk pregnancies may result in complications for a small percentage of women, others may have a higher likelihood of complications.
In India, a significant proportion of pregnancies are considered high-risk, and if left unidentified or poorly managed, can lead to high rates of perinatal mortality. Routine antenatal care is crucial in identifying high-risk pregnancies as early as possible and implementing appropriate management and monitoring strategies to improve outcomes for both the mother and the baby.
What Triggers High-Risk Pregnancy?
Pre-Existing Maternal Health Conditions – Pre-existent maternal health conditions like obesity, high blood pressure, thyroid disease, diabetes, etc may influence high-risk pregnancies among women.
Pregnancy-Related Health Disorders- Similarly health conditions of women during the pregnancy period must be kept in check and treated properly as they might affect the child’s development and induce high-risk pregnancy.
Lifestyle Factors- Women who are into the habit of smoking, alcohol drinking, or drug addiction may face high-risk pregnancies at a much higher rate.
What are the Familiar Medical Risk Factors for a High-Risk Pregnancy?
A high-risk pregnancy is a result of a medical condition that is present prior to pregnancy.
Some common risk factors associated with a high-risk pregnancy are :
Autoimmune Diseases- A woman having autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis or lupus face more high-risk pregnancies.
Pregnancy History- A woman with a history of having pregnancy-related hypertension conditions, like preeclampsia, giving premature baby birth in the last pregnancy, or multiple premature births is at a higher risk of having pregnancy complications.
Maternal Health Problems- Diabetes, high blood pressure, thyroid, poorly controlled asthma, etc may induce complications during pregnancy.
High-Risk Pregnancy - Signs And Symptoms?
Some of the signs and symptoms of high-risk pregnancy are listed below.
Abdominal And Chest Pain – Women facing abdominal and chest pain which does not go with time may have a high-risk pregnancy and doctor consultation is a must.
Extreme Fatigue And Dizziness – Although pregnancy itself is a difficult phase, women who experience excessive fatigue along with dizziness and fainting may have high-risk pregnancies.
Nausea and Vomiting With Severe Headache- Women facing severe headache that increases with time and are accompanied by nausea and vomiting may face a high-risk pregnancy.
What are the Probable Complications of a High-Risk Pregnancy?
A high-risk pregnancy can be detrimental for both the mother and the fetus.
Some of the potential complications are :
Preeclampsia - Women often face a potentially harmful pregnancy problem characterized by high blood pressure called preeclampsia. It generally begins post-20 weeks of pregnancy and can lead to fatal complications for the mother and baby.
Eclampsia - A condition characterized by convulsions or seizures in pregnant women along with hypertension and proteinuria.
Preterm or Caesarean Delivery – When a baby is born earlier, that is before 37 weeks of pregnancy, there is a high risk of death and other disabilities in the baby.
Diagnosis and Monitoring of High-Risk Pregnancy - How is it done?
A high-risk pregnancy requires early diagnosis so that special measures can be taken to safeguard the mother and baby.
Some tests to monitor the health of the fetus include:
Ultrasonography- In this technique, sound waves are employed for creating images of the fetus and thus screening congenital conditions.
Blood and Urine Testing – These tests are a must for the detection of genetic conditions of the fetus and also birth defects.
Biophysical Profiling- This test monitors the amniotic fluid, breathing, and movements of the fetus using ultrasound. This helps to ensure whether the fetus is getting enough oxygen or not.
How Can High-Risk Pregnancy Be Managed?
The management of high-risk pregnancies will vary depending on specific risk factors. One should prepare care plans which include :
Consultation With A Maternal-Fetal Drug Specialist - Closer follow-up with an obstetrician and a high-risk pregnancy specialist may help in managing high-risk pregnancy.
Repeated Ultrasonography – More ultrasounds will enable closer fetal evaluation and diagnosis and are a must for pregnancy care.
Monitoring of Medications - A mother needs to carefully monitor and manage her current health condition by having proper medications referred by the doctor. Monitoring blood pressure at home is also vital at this stage.
How Can High-Risk Pregnancy Be Prevented?
One can reduce the risk of having pregnancy complications by:
Avoid Bad Habits - Habits of alcohol, smoking, and drugs are all harmful to both mother and fetus, thus avoiding them is a must during the pregnancy period.
Healthy Body Weight Maintenance- This ensures better chances of getting pregnant and also safer pregnancy.
Planning Pregnancies Between 18 And 34 Years - Women with higher or very young age may face complications and thus it is better to conceive at this period.
Does Someone Need Special Pregnancy Tests?
If someone is having a high-risk pregnancy, then special monitoring throughout pregnancy periods is necessary. It helps to identify specific genetic and congenital conditions of the fetus.
What’s the Prediction for People With High-Risk Pregnancy?
Many women having high-risk pregnancies don’t suffer any problems and deliver healthy babies. But they might have a higher risk for health problems in the future, including:
1. Postpartum depression
2. Suffering high blood pressure
3. Complications in future pregnancies
Frequently Asked Questions
1) What Kind Of Doctor Must Be Consulted For High-Risk Pregnancy?
Specialist doctors called perinatologists (maternal-fetal medicine professionals) must be consulted for high-risk pregnancies.
2) Does High-Risk Pregnancy Require Bed Rest?
No evidence of bed rest during pregnancy is shown to be effective for treating preterm labour.
3) Can Stress Induce High-Risk Pregnancy?
High levels of stress can induce health problems which can ultimately lead to high-risk pregnancy.
4) At What Age Is A Pregnancy Considered To Be At High Risk?
A woman's pregnancy is deemed to be at high risk if she is 17 years or younger and 35 years or older.
5) Does Climbing Stairs Influence Early Pregnancy?
Climbing stairs should not be done regularly when there is a history of miscarriage or preterm birth. It is better to do yoga or exercise to be active.