Sleeve gastrectomy is a surgical weight-loss treatment, for morbidly obese individuals. Sleeve gastrectomy involves the removal of around 80% of the stomach to induce weight loss. It is usually advised when the non surgical methods like dietary modification was excessive parts. Sleeve gastrectomy is a solution to get rid of excess weight and to prevent life-threatening conditions in individuals it reduced the part of stomach that produces hunger hormone problem:
High blood pressure
- Heart disease
- Diabetes type 2
- High cholesterol
- Obstructive sleep apnea
Body location: Stomach
Procedure of sleeve gastrectomy
Sleeve gastrectomy is a surgery that reduces the size of the stomach by removing a portion of it. Generally, 3/4 of the stomach is removed, and a small tube or banana-sized stomach remains behind. The patient is under anesthesia during the surgery. The surgery is performed laparoscopically (through cameras), and multiple small incisions are created in the upper abdomen that serve as working ports for the surgical instruments.
The instrument are used in cutting and stapling the stomach into its new, smaller shape. The excised portion of the stomach is then removed. The gastric sleeve will now restrict the amount of food patient feels early fullness.
Preparation for sleeve gastrectomy
Sleeve gastrectomy is for those who have tried diets and exercises to lose weight yet can’t see any difference in weight. It is generally done on obese individuals or people with a higher BMI.
The patient is given a strict diet to follow for two weeks before the sleeve gastrectomy. The diet is a lean and protein-based diet free of calories, carbohydrates, caffeine, alcohol, etc. Some tests that are necessarily taken before sleeve gastrectomy are as follows:
- Complete metabolic functioning tests, including calcium and liver function tests
- Thyroid function tests
- Tests for vitamin levels such as B12, folate, thiamine, etc.
- Cessation of smoking, alcohol, or any other immunosuppressant medication.
Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) is an irreversible bariatric surgery.
A follow-up after the sleeve gastrectomy is performed.
After a successful sleeve gastrectomy surgery, the patient’s diet begins with non-caffeinated, non-carbonated, and sugar-free liquids, i.e., a clear liquid diet for the first week, then progresses to easily digestible foods for three weeks that are mostly purees, and finally to regular foods i.e four weeks after the surgery. The patient will be required to take multivitamin and calcium supplements everyday, and a vitamin B-12 injection once a month for life. Fruits and vegetables are highly recommended after the first month of surgery to maintain good health.
Frequent medical checkups are done to monitor the patient’s health in the first several months after weight-loss surgery. Also, blood tests may be needed for some patients.
Risks and side effects after sleeve gastrectomy
Due to rapid weight loss, the patient may see the following in the first 3-6 months after surgery:
- Body aches.
- Hair thinning and hair loss
- Dry skin
- Feeling full and loss of appetite
- Mood swings
- It may aggravate or cause a new onset of reflux.
- Dyspepsia (Dyspepsia)
- Acid reflux
The sleeve gastrectomy creates a vertical sleeve in the stomach that restricts the amount of food needed before feeling full. After one month of this surgery, the patient can bounce back to normal eating. The average human stomach can expand to fit around 4-6 cups of food. The new sleeve stomach will hold about a half cup of food. Hence, this involves the selection and intake of healthy and home-cooked foods. Sugar, caffeine, processed foods, carbonated drinks, alcohol, and smoking should be avoided or minimized to the greatest extent possible. A new lifestyle is what the patient has to adapt to after the surgery to take care of the new body because generally, patients lose up to extra body weight of their previous body weight. The smaller stomach takes less food, so the quantity of food should be sufficient to fulfill all nutritional and energetic requirements.